Question: How many stereoisomers does ephedrine have?

Ephedrine has two chiral centres and can therefore exist in the form of four stereoisomers: 1R,2S-(-)-ephedrine, 1S,2R-(+)-ephedrine, 1S,2S-(+)-pseudoephedrine and 1R,2R-(-)-pseudoephedrine (Table 1).

What is the structure of ephedrine?

Ephedrine has two chiral carbons and has two enantiomers, (1R,2S)-(-) and (1S,2R)-(+)-ephedrine, shown in Figure 2B, and two diastereomers, (1S,2S)-(+)-pseudoephedrine and (1R,2R)-(-)-pseudoephedrine, shown in Figure 4.

Which isomer of ephedrine is active?

The principal active constitu- ent in the Ephedra species is ephedrine, which possesses two chiral centers, and can exist as four isomers designated as 1 R ,2 S – and 1 S ,2 R -ephedrine and 1 R ,2 R – and 1 S ,2 S -pseudoephedrine (Griffith and Johnson, 1995).

Is ephedrine a diastereomer?

The alkaloid called ephedrine is a diastereomer of pseudoephedrine.

Is Ephedrine a base?

It is a conjugate base of a (-)-ephedrinium. Ephedrine was first described in western literature in 1888, as a naturally occurring component of the ephedra plant, along with [pseudoephedrine].

What functional groups are in ephedrine?

Ephedrine contains an arene (the aromatic benzene ring), an alcohol (the -OH group), an amine (the nitrogen-based group), and an N-methyl group (-CH3 attached to nitrogen). It does not contain a ketone (C=O), or any other carboxyl groups.

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What class of drug is ephedrine?

Ephedrine is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of low blood pressure during anesthesia (Hypotension). Ephedrine may be used alone or with other medications. Ephedrine belongs to a class of drugs called Alpha/Beta Adrenergic Agonists. It is not known if Ephedrine is safe and effective in children.

Is ephedrine a vasopressor?

Background: Historically, ephedrine has been the vasopressor of choice for treatment of most cases of hypotension in obstetric patients. However, the choice of vasopressor in the parturient receiving a beta-adrenergic agent for tocolysis has not been evaluated extensively.

Does ephedrine increase dopamine?

Ephedrine, which has been used as a decongestant and weight loss agent, causes both central serotonin and dopamine (DA) release (Bowyer et al., 2000).

How do you identify ephedrine?

Testing Method

  1. Place small amount of material to be tested on a spot plate.
  2. Add 2 drops of reagent A.
  3. Add 2 drops of reagent B.
  4. Add 2 drops of reagent C.
  5. A violet color indicates presence of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine.

What is the difference between ephedrine and epinephrine?

As a vasoconstrictor, epinephrine is 100 to 1,000 times more potent than ephedrine. 1 Mix-ups between these two drugs have resulted in serious patient harm. The Closed Claims Project of the American Society of Anesthesiologists found that errors involving epinephrine are particularly dangerous.

What is the empirical formula for ephedrine?

Ephedrine hydrochloride

PubChem CID 65326
Chemical Safety Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary (LCSS) Datasheet
Molecular Formula C10H16ClNO
Synonyms Ephedrine hydrochloride 50-98-6 1-Ephedrine hydrochloride (-)-Ephedrine hydrochloride UNII-NLJ6390P1Z More…
Molecular Weight 201.69

Is ephedrine a controlled substance?

2.2.

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Ephedrine products are usually not categorized as controlled substances internationally. To prevent ephedrine products from being illegally transformed into the amphetamine and/or its analogs, these products are usually packaged and supplied in the limited quantities, and cannot be openly displayed in pharmacies.

Is ephedrine stronger than pseudoephedrine?

Ephedrine applied to the nasal mucosa reduces nasal resistance more quickly and strongly than oral pseudoephedrine, but with shorter action time [10], [11]. At end of treatment, there may be a rebound effect with increased nasal resistance and recurrence of congestion, for which several hypotheses have been suggested.

What is the difference between ephedra and ephedrine?

Ephedrine is a chemical contained in the ephedra herb. Ephedrine has medical uses, mostly in operating rooms and intensive care units. Its chemical properties raise blood pressure and heart rate and open up the large air passages in the lungs.