What drugs cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome?

Which medication poses the greatest risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome?

Causes. NMS is usually caused by antipsychotic drug use, and a wide range of drugs can result in NMS. Individuals using butyrophenones (such as haloperidol and droperidol) or phenothiazines (such as promethazine and chlorpromazine) are reported to be at greatest risk.

Can antidepressants cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome?

Like NMS, SS often occurs when beginning a new drug or increasing the dosage of a current drug. Many drugs can cause the condition, but it’s most often associated with antidepressants, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).

Which increases the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome NMS?

Risk factors

The main risk factor for developing NMS is taking antipsychotic medication. While some more potent drugs may increase a person’s risk, all antipsychotic medications can cause this condition. Taking more than one antipsychotic drug can also increase a person’s risk of developing NMS.

Do typical antipsychotics cause NMS?

Although atypical antipsychotics were initially considered to carry no risk of NMS, reports have accumulated over time implicating them in NMS causation. Almost all atypical antipsychotics have been reported to be associated with NMS.

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Why do antipsychotics cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome?

The most widely accepted mechanism by which antipsychotics cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome is that of dopamine D2 receptor antagonism. In this model, central D2 receptor blockade in the hypothalamus, nigrostriatal pathways, and spinal cord leads to increased muscle rigidity and tremor via extrapyramidal pathways.

Can lithium cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome?

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with atypical antipsychotic drugs. The literature contains several case reports of lithium-associated NMS, particularly when lithium was given in combination with antipsychotics or dopaminergic agents.

Is SSRI a neuroleptic?

Neuroleptic (NL) or antipsychotic drugs and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are frequently used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders.

Can Zoloft cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome?

Additionally, a few case reports have suggested an association between NMS and the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) alone or in combination with antipsychotics. This case report presents a female patient developing NMS following the use of a combination of sertraline and paroxetine.

Can Prozac cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome?

NMS has been reported in patients treated with SSRIs such as fluoxetine and citalopram. NMS is also reported when SSRI like fluvoxamine is combined with a second-generation antipsychotic like quetiapine. Combination treatment with risperidone and fluvoxamine is reported to cause neurotoxic syndrome in one patient.

Can amantadine cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome?

For reasons that are not entirely understood, abrupt changes in amantadine dosage can produce a severe withdrawal syndrome. Existing medical literature describes case reports of amantadine withdrawal leading to delirium, which at times has progressed to neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

What do neuroleptic drugs do?

Neuroleptics, also known as antipsychotic medications, are used to treat and manage symptoms of many psychiatric disorders. They fall into two classes: first-generation or “typical” antipsychotics and second-generation or “atypical” antipsychotics.” Neuroleptic drugs block dopamine receptors in the nervous system.

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Which of the following are risk factors for neuroleptic malignant syndrome?

Other potential risk factors include the following:

  • Dehydration.
  • Agitation.
  • Exhaustion.
  • Malnutrition.
  • Organic brain syndromes.
  • Nonschizophrenic mental illness.
  • Lithium use.
  • Past history of electroconvulsive therapy.